The Intellectual Property Services Classification (IPSC) defines types of business activities that are executed by companies active in the IP services market. Each main category is divided in several sub-categories.

Recommended citation: Maicher, L., Tonisson, L., Bartsch, F. & Jha, P. 2016: Intellectual Property Services Classification (IPSC). Leipzig: Fraunhofer IMW. Retrieved from

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  • 100 Legal Services

    Services involving legal or law related matters like issue of patents, preparation of patent filing documents and litigation processes.

    • 110 IPR Protection

      Process of assuring legal rights to the objects of IPR (e.g. inventions, literacy and artistic works, images, logos, designs) by filing applications with Patent & Trademark Offices and Copyright Offices.

      • 111 Patent and Trademark Search

        Prior art search and investigation and comparison of existing intellectual property rights and applications regionally and worldwide.

      • 112 Patent Drafting

        Services related to the drafting of a description of the invention required for the patent application, i.e. the process of writing the patent description and claims.

      • 113 Application and Renewal of IPR

        Applications for IP protection and renewals of IP protection at industrial property offices (e.g. EPO, DPMA, USPTO, JPO).

    • 120 IPR Contracting

      The branch of legal services dealing with assisting with formal IP related agreements between parties.

      • 121 Due Diligence

        IP related due diligence services prior to IP transactions (e.g. licensing, acquisition, sale).

      • 122 IPR Transaction Support

        Negotiations for and draft of IP transactions (e.g. licensing, acquisition, sale of IP rights), and development of legal strategies for IP protection and use.

    • 130 IPR Litigation

      A legal proceeding in a court or a judicial contest to determine and enforce IP rights.

      • 131 Non-judicial Proceeding

        Legal services lying outside the proceedings in the court (e.g. determination of possible infringement cases, negotiations for extrajudicial settlements).

      • 132 Judicial Proceeding

        Legal services associated with the protection of IP in the court (e.g. representation in civil and criminal proceedings of IP owner or alleged infringer of IP rights).

      • 133 Arbitration and Mediation

        Legal services covering the arbitration and mediation proceedings (e.g. preparation of claims, and representation of IP owners or alleged infringer of IP rights).

    • 140 IPR-granting

      Industrial property offices that grant and renew legal rights to the objects of IP (EPO, DPMA, USPTO, JPO)

    • 150 Standardization

      Legal and regulatory services related to standard essential patents (SEP) setting

    • 160 Anti-Trust and Competition Law Enforcement

      Services opposing or intended to regulate technology ownership monopolies (a case where almost all IP in a certain field is owned by one company), such as trusts or cartels, especially in the interest of promoting competition. Service that seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies regarding the IPR commercialization activities.

  • 200 IP Consulting

    Advisory services related to various IP aspects providing professional or expert advice in a particular area such as market specifics for precise industry for patenting, technology and IP roadmaps, and various analyses.

    • 210 IP Portfolio Analysis

      Services for assessment of patents.

      • 211 Legal Quality Assessment

        Examining the legal strength of patent.

      • 212 IPR Valuation

        Determination or estimation the market value for patents or the underlying technology. Includes valuation of patent portfolios and technology.

      • 213 IP Portfolio Landscaping

        Assessment services that comprise mapping technology fields and existing patents according to the given patent portfolio and thus estimating its market position.

    • 220 IP Strategy Development

      Consulting services for examining the best solutions of IP usage and further development. Includes strategic planning of technology trajectories/technology paths and IP portfolio development.

    • 230 Commercialization Support

      Services related to marketing the patented technologies, assistance with creating prototypes, helping to bring the products to the market.

    • 240 Competitive Intelligence

      Collection and analysis of IP related data. It is the service of defining, gathering, analyzing, and distributing intelligence about IP, IP holders, IP portfolios and any aspect of the IP environment needed to support executives and managers in making strategic IP decisions for an organization.

      • 241 Industry Analysis

        Examining existing competitors and companies involved in IP market.

      • 242 Technology Analysis

        Examining patented technologies, their technical details and – requirements for patenting purposes.

      • 243 Patent Analysis

        Services related to examining existing patents and drawing conclusions on patenting related information/activities.

    • 250 Prior Art Search through Crowd-Sourcing Platform

      Service that allows an organization or an individual to collaborate with a community to find out if a specific technology exists/is patented.

    • 260 Fighting Infringement, Counterfeiting and Piracy

      Services specialized on detecting and interfering IP infringements.

    • 270 Internationalization Support

      Services for supporting internationalization and trade of IP. Includes assistance in find-ing investors and business partners abroad and also offering any IPR related advice in legal, strategic or politic topics for certain countries (e.g. local patent laws, local technol-ogies and clusters, societal and environmental issues).

  • 300 Matchmaking and Trading

    Services related to arrangement of IPR related development needs of companies with available resources. Includes trading of IPR that results in exchange of ownership.

    • 310 Matchmaking

      Service of linking IP (development) needs with available resources (including researchers).

      • 311 Onsite Matchmaking Service

        Services related to organizing face-to-face matchmaking events. Including conferences or forums created for purpose of connecting IPR (development) needs with available resources.

      • 312 Online Matchmaking Platform

        Web-based platforms for services connecting IP (development) needs with available resources.

    • 320 IPR Brokerage

      Services related to assisting patent owners in finding licensees, buyers for their IP. Service includes negotiating IP related contracts, IP purchases, – or sales in return for a fee or commission.

    • 330 IPR Scouting

      Specific services that help you to find necessary IP. It is a team of IP and technology experts or an expert who observes and recommends new promising IP for acquiring.

    • 340 IPR Auction

      A service dedicated to organizing a public sale in which intellectual property or IPR portfolios are sold to the highest bidder.

    • 350 IPR Exchanges

      Traded exchanges (whether physical or online locations) similar to the NYSE and NASDAQ where yet-to-be created IP-based financial instruments would be listed and traded much like stocks are today.

    • 360 IPR Sharing

      Defensive publishing or platforms where inventions are made public for free usage of the IP.

      • 361 Defensive Publishing

        Defensive publishing or platforms where inventions are made public. Disclosing an enabling description and/or drawing of the product, apparatus or method so that it enters the public domain and becomes prior art.

      • 362 (Online) IPR Pools for Public Use

        Platforms for sharing IPR for free.

    • 370 IPR Pooling/Aggregation

      The process of scouting and acquiring existing patents.

      • 371 Offensive IPR pooling

        The purchasing of patents in order to assert them against companies that would use the inventions protected by such patents (operating companies) and to grant licenses to these operating companies in return for licensing fees or royalties.

      • 372 Defensive IPR Pooling

        The purchasing of patents or patent rights to keep such patents out of the hands of entities that would assert them against operating companies.

    • 380 IP-driven M&A Advisory

      Services similar to traditional investment banking services where a percentage fee is re-ceived from IPR motivated M&A activities. Services advising technology companies in their merger and acquisition (M&A) activities based on the companies IPR portfolio and earning fees based on the value of the entire deal (or apportioned according to the value of the IPR within the deal.

    • 390 Purchase and Sale of IPR

      Services that provide assistance with actions that involve exchange of IP ownership.

  • 400 IP Portfolio Processing

    Various services related to creation of IP portfolios and partial management processes of the portfolio related to creating revenues out of IP.

    • 410 Document Processing

      Servises related to assisting with the documentation of patent process / patenting itself

    • 420 IP Portfolio Management

      Services related to outsourcing all IPR portfolio management related decision like updating the valuable patents, collecting royalties and negotiating the terms and conditions of the license agreement with potential licensees.

    • 430 IP Portfolio Administration

      Maintenance and renewal of the IP portfolios as well as collecting royalty rates and dealing with licensing.

    • 440 IPR Augmentation

      IPR creation, either for creating new technologies by cooperating with other institutions and as a results being the owner (or co-owner) of the patents created out of that process; or developing new technologies and getting patents on them in-house, using own R&D resources.

    • 450 Licensing IPR

      An act of authorization by the licensor to use the technology by the licensee. Services of licensing and advising for licensing, done by service providers e.g. licensing agents.

      • 451 Carrot Licensing

        Services executing carrot licensing involve bringing together licensing partners voluntarily. A carrot patent licensing approach is appropriate when the prospective licensee is not practicing the patented invention and is under no compulsion to take a license.

      • 452 Stick Licensing

        Services pursuing stick licensing involve to some degree infringement. A stick patent licensing approach is applied when the prospective licensee is already using your patent technology and, thereby, infringing your patent.

  • 500 IPR-related Financial Service

    Resource allocation as well as resource management, acquisition and investment. In other words, finance deals with matters related to money and the markets.

    • 510 Management of Investment Products based on IPR

      Services similar to traditional venture capital (VC) or private equity firms services, but specializing in spinning out promising non-core IP which has become “stranded” within larger technology companies, or creating joint ventures between large technology companies to commercialize the technology and monetize the associated IP. IP private equity and venture capital firms raise funds from institutional investors such as companies, banks, governments or high net worth individuals, as well as private equity fund managers themselves.

    • 520 Management of Investment Products based on Royalty Liquidation/Streams

      Services related to the counsel, assistance and/or providing capital to patent owners performing IPR securitization financing transactions (which resemble the more common mortgage-backed securities).

    • 530 Financing IPR and Innovation Processes

      Providing capital for IP creation and aggregation.

      • 531 Private Financing

        Related to service of providing private financing for IP owners, either directly or as intermediaries, usually in the form of loans (debt financing), where the security for the loan is either wholly or partially IP assets (i.e., IP collateralization).

      • 532 Public Funding

        Similarly to private funding (see 131), government funding to develop further specific technology areas or promote certain technologies.

      • 533 PPP Financing

        Similarly to private funding (see 131), composition of public and private funding for IP creation.

    • 540 IPR Litigation Funding

      Litigation funders are providing financial means for IPR litigation and particularly patent litigation cases for a fixed fee or percentage on the amount gained from infringing party.

    • 550 IPR Insurance

      Intellectual Property Insurance service protects companies for copyright, trademark or patent infringement claims arising out of the company’s operation. It pays the defense costs and any judgment up to the policy limits.

      • 551 IPR Litigation Insurance for Inventors

        Insurances focused on inventors that cover legal fees for claiming and litigating own intellectual property rights. IP coverage helps pay the legal expenses of suing an individual or firm that has violated your intellectual property rights.

      • 552 IPR Litigation Insurance for Third-parties

        Insurances that cover legal fees related to IPR litigation. Third party coverage protects the client in case of infringing on another party’s intellectual property rights and it usually funds legal defense costs for the client.

  • 600 IP-related Communication Service

    The collective communication outlets or tools that are used to store and deliver information on IPR related topics or data, like publications, journals, blogs and educational materials. Additionally, the correspondents of IPR related issues like unions and IP interest groups.

Last update 2016-11-23